Dating a dinosaur bone dating united arab emirates for
Soft tissue and proteins have been reported in at least one of these specimens.
The abundance of fossil material has allowed significant research into many aspects of its biology, including life history and biomechanics.
Like many bipedal dinosaurs, Tyrannosaurus rex was historically depicted as a 'living tripod', with the body at 45 degrees or less from the vertical and the tail dragging along the ground, similar to a kangaroo.
This concept dates from Joseph Leidy's 1865 reconstruction of Hadrosaurus, the first to depict a dinosaur in a bipedal posture.
In contrast the hind limbs were among the longest in proportion to body size of any theropod.
The tail was heavy and long, sometimes containing over forty vertebrae, in order to balance the massive head and torso.
The tip of the upper jaw was U-shaped (most non-tyrannosauroid carnivores had V-shaped upper jaws), which increased the amount of tissue and bone a tyrannosaur could rip out with one bite, although it also increased the stresses on the front teeth.
The premaxillary teeth at the front of the upper jaw were closely packed, D-shaped in cross-section, had reinforcing ridges on the rear surface, were incisiform (their tips were chisel-like blades) and curved backwards.
The remaining teeth were robust, like "lethal bananas" rather than daggers; more widely spaced and also had reinforcing ridges.
Those in the upper jaw were larger than those in all but the rear of the lower jaw.
The largest found so far is estimated to have been 30 centimetres (12 in) long including the root when the animal was alive, making it the largest tooth of any carnivorous dinosaur.
To compensate for the immense bulk of the animal, many bones throughout the skeleton were hollow, reducing its weight without significant loss of strength.
Large fenestrae (openings) in the skull reduced weight and provided areas for muscle attachment, as in all carnivorous theropods.